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              2021考研英語一翻譯試題及答案解析(中公考研版)

              2021-10-19 11:03:38| 來源:鄂爾多斯中公教育

              Part C

              Directions:

              Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

              WWII was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies. (46) Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education. (47) And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly though unevenly in the 1970s and 1980s.

              The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth: (48) in many countries of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second, growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions. And third, growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.

              Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake. For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years, (49) and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty. And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution—this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan. (50) High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s, European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with the empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well.

              46. Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war.

              【譯文】二戰結束后,這些西方社會有一定的高等教育水平(1分),在戰前幾十年間(0.5分),該水平大概保持在相對年齡群體的3%到5%(0.5分)。

              【重難點】本句的主句為those societies … enrollment,定語從句that had been … decades before the war修飾levels of enrollment;其中,those societies指代前句Western societies,譯為“這些西方社會”,the war指代前文WWII(第二次世界大戰),譯為“二戰”,enrollment意為“入學”,with levels of enrollment為狀語,修飾came out of。

              47. And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war.

              【譯文】在這些社會中興起的接受高等教育的需求(1分),擴展到了一些群體和社會階層(0.5分),這些群體和社會階層在戰前沒想過上大學(0.5分)。

              【重難點】本句的主句為And the demand extended to groups and social classes;定語從句that rose in those … education修飾demand,放先行詞前譯出。that had not thought … the war也是定語從句,修飾groups and social classes,從句較長,重復先行詞單獨譯出從句,譯為“這些群體和社會階層在戰前沒想過上大學”;其中,social class意為“社會階層”。

              48. in many countries of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s.

              【譯文】在西歐的許多國家(0.5分),接受高等教育的學生數量在20世紀60年代的五年期內翻了一番(1分),到20世紀70年代中期,該數量又在七年、八年或十年內翻了一番(0.5分)。

              【重難點】本句出現了兩個并列的謂語doubled和doubled again,意為“(使)……加倍”,主語為the numbers of students,the number of意為“……的數量”,in higher education作后置定語,修飾students,翻譯時放所修飾名詞前,in many countries of Western Europe為地點狀語。within five-year periods during the 1960s和in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s均為時間狀語。

              49. …and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty.

              【譯文】且當新員工主要是剛從研究生階段畢業的年輕男女時(1分),他們很大程度上決定了該院系的學術生活規范(1分)。

              【重難點】本句為復合句,由when引導的時間狀語從句及其主句構成,較簡單。其中,predominantly意為“主要地”,faculty此處意為“院,系”;fresh from sth.為固定搭配,表示“剛有過……經歷”,此處為形容詞短語作后置定語修飾young men and women;norms of academic life意為“學術生活規范”。

              50. High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth.

              【譯文】高增長率增加了學術創新的可能性(0.5分),同樣也弱化了形式和過程(0.5分)——在穩定或緩慢增長期,教師或學生通過這些形式和過程進入學者團體(1分)。

              【重難點】本句由分號連接的兩個并列分句構成,分句一為簡單句,其中chance意為“可能性”,for academic innovation作后置定語修飾chances,譯為“學術創新的可能性”。分句二中they指分句一中的high growth rates,即兩個分句主語一致,翻譯時可共用主語;分句二中主句為they also weakened the forms and processes,定語從句by which teachers and … or slow growth修飾forms and processes,其中,admit into意為“準許進入/加入”;during periods of stability or slow growth為時間狀語。

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